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Glutamine, the most abundant free amino acid in human plasma, has excellent nutritional and non-nutritional properties. Glutamine regulates immune function and modulates cellular metabolism. In particular, its administration in various experimental and clinical studies showed a positive effect on glucose oxidation and on insulin resistance.
In humans, glutamine acts both as a substrate and as a modulator of its metabolism to glucose. In trauma patients and in critical illness, parenteral glutamine supplementation improved insulin sensitivity and increased the release of insulin by pancreatic β-cells. Also, in a recent clinical trial, oral L-glutamine supplementation improved the glucose profile in patients and subjects with type 2 diabetes.
The mechanisms underlying these specific effects are still unknown. Several diseases, such as obesity and diabetes, could receive important benefits from glutamine supplementation, possibly in conjunction with conventional therapy.
Metabolic effects of glutamine on insulin sensitivity (pdf file)
Found at Alkohol adé (german)
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